This fish is known by various names. In the West and North-West of Russia it is called raw or raw, in Volkhov it is called raw or raw; in Dorpat and Pskov, it is a bit of pogod, on the Dniester and in Mogilev - a mullet, in some places - a dash; in the south of Russia - a fisherman, a small fisherman, Selyava; in Poland there is a circus, a center, a circus, a vain, an underscore, a mare, and in the tributaries of the Vistula is a charmer. And this is only a small part of its names.
Raw or fishery is a fish distributed in the West, Southwest and South of Russia, while this species is not found at all in the northern regions of our country, as well as in the Volga basin. Although there is a likelihood that a fisherman could enter the Volga through canals, however, for many years, researchers have not described such facts. This fish does not live in Siberia, although Valyayen writes that he caught it in the Ob. Most likely, he mixed up cheese with cheese.
The homeland of the fish is considered Central Europe. Despite the fact that it is very common in Germany, England, Sweden and Austria, in more southern countries, in countries such as Italy, Spain, France, this fish does not occur. In our country, the border of the fishery in the north passes in the area of the source of the Svir ryki, but this fish does not live in Lake Onega.
And in the south of Lake Ladoga, in the Neva, in the upper part of the Gulf of Finland, in Narova and Volkhov, this is a fairly common fish, which from these reservoirs enters Meta and, possibly, the Upper Volga. But in Lake Ladoga, the fisherman never reaches Kexholm, the border of its distribution in the Gulf of Bothnia is Biorneborg.Raw or fisherman (Vimba vimba).
In the North-West of Europe and in the South-West of Russia, the population of this fish is quite numerous, it lives mainly in the Dniester and the Bug. In the Dnieper, the fisherman is not common, and above the thresholds its number is generally minimized, although some individuals reach Smolensk. An even rarer guest is a fisherman in the Don, but in the Kuban it is caught in large volumes. It also lives in a number of large lakes in the North-West of Russia, in particular in Lake Ilmen, where a small amount of fish of this species enters Volkhova.The nose at the syrt really is outstanding.
The raw material can be easily distinguished from other fish due to its elongated, prominent nose, which completely covers the mouth. Only a podust can boast of a similar structure, with which it is sometimes confused to raw. But the podust has a narrower body, it is painted in a different color, and its anal fin consists of only 15 rays, while the raw fin has from 21 to 25. And the mouth of the podod in the open state has the shape of a quadrangle, while This shape is round. The podust also has a peritoneum, which it has with a blackish tint, and the scales are larger.
The color of the raw material is not constant and varies depending on the season. With the beginning of the mating season, which starts in the spring, the raw turns into a real beauty: her back turns black, the middle part of the abdomen and lower fins turn red. In males, small warts resembling grains form on the gill wings, on the head and along the edges of the scales. In the autumn-winter period, the back of the syrt becomes gray-blue, the abdomen becomes silver-white, and the lower fins acquire a yellowish color.Raw - a fish with a "hundred" names.
It is assumed that the black-eyed bream, which was discovered by Nordman in the rivers of Crimea, in particular in the Salgir river, is also a species of fish. This is not an independent species, but only a species of ordinary fish. It has a shorter and not so prominent nose, the body is narrower than that of a classic fish, its head is blackish in color, a fairly distinct dark stripe runs along the back, and in the fins, with the exception of the anal and pectorals, which are painted white, there is a black edge. Its length does not exceed 30 cm.
There is evidence that there is a cross between a fish and a bream. The fisher himself may have some differences in color, fin shape and other features of the species. For example, the northern raw material has a more concave anal fin than can be seen in the figure.Raw prefers to hunt at the bottom of ponds.
The size of the raw material rarely exceeds a length of 30-40 cm, and its weight sometimes reaches 1 - 1.5 kg.
However, it is larger than most bream species. Some Pskov fishermen came across two kilogram raws, but such cases are quite rare. Fish of this species are distinguished by agility and quickness, prefer water with a fast flow, can even live on the rifts.
Since raw loves clean and fresh cold water, it does not occur on the Volga and in the rivers of its basin. She is not afraid of somewhat brackish water, so she often lives in large estuaries and in estuaries, mainly in autumn. It feeds mainly on insects, worms, crustaceans and mollusks, in exceptional cases - aquatic vegetation.The raw lives only in clean reservoirs.
Spawning at the syrt begins quite late: in the southern regions in May, and in the northwest only at the end of May - beginning of June. Before spawning begins in early spring, these fish gather in large dense schools and from river mouths, lakes and estuaries and begin to move up the rivers, which gives them the right to be called migratory fish.
Spawning occurs in the mainstream. For this process, raw selects deep places with a rocky bottom and a fast flow. Spawning lasts about two weeks. It is assumed that spawning occurs only at night.Raw - a popular find among fishermen.
The syrti caviar is very small in size, no larger than a poppy seed. But then there is a lot of her, in each female weighing about 600 grams. there can be up to 30 thousand eggs. Caviar is attached to stones, which protects it from various external influences, including the attack of fish of other species, as well as birds living on the water.
The records of Terletsky survived to our days, in which he described his observations of a fisherman in the Neman and the Western Dvina. According to his data, the raw material that lives in these rivers is in many ways different from the raw material that lives in the south of Russia and in other North-Western territories of our country. He believed that the raw material in the areas he studied was exclusively river fish, it does not live in lakes.Small fish that are caught on a fishing hook are released back into the water.
For permanent life, as well as for spawning, she chooses special places, which are not easy to identify. Prefers running water with a rocky bottom at different depths. During the floods of rivers, it keeps along the banks and happens to enter the backwaters. And in a permanent habitat, and in their travels to spawning places, the feed is kept in packs. Moreover, these schools are formed on the basis of the age of the fish, that is, there are schools of old, middle-aged and young fish.
During the first two years of life, juvenile syrti live in deep fenders, fetching eggs and insect larvae for themselves, which they look for among stones and in sand. This behavior of them is the reason for the fact that the young specimen is not something to catch, even to see a big success.Catching cheese in winter is a great luck for the fisherman!
Raw begins to spawn in late June - early July. Moreover, she begins to prepare for this process ahead of time. Two weeks before the onset of estrus, we begin to change the raw color, which becomes more colorful, beautiful and shiny.