The Krasnodar Territory, part of the Southern Federal District, has a temperate continental, semi-dry Mediterranean and humid subtropical climate. In mountainous areas, pronounced climatic altitudinal zonality is noted. The region is not only rich in vegetation, but also is the habitat of a large number of representatives of the animal world.
On the territory of the Krasnodar Territory today lives more than eight dozen different species of mammals, some of which are unique and listed in the Red Book. Due to the very high fertility of the main arable land of the region, there are many herbivores.
Caucasian forest cat
A small representative of felids, inhabiting mountainous areas and living among deciduous vegetation. In appearance, the mammal resembles an ordinary cat. The average weight of an adult predator slightly exceeds 6-7 kg. Forest cat is active mainly at night. The diet is represented by rodents, proteins and partridges, as well as other small animals. Often, adults attack the smallest artiodactyl cubs. The total population today is approximately two or three thousand individuals.
A beautiful animal up to two meters high with a body length of more than three meters. The herbivore prefers herd habitat, but sometimes single males can be found. Today, mountain bison is kept in the natural conditions of the Caucasus Nature Reserve. Along with many other typical mountain animals, the bison lives at an altitude of up to two meters above sea level. Thanks to the excellent adaptive abilities, representatives of this species effectively occupy a separate niche in the ecological system of indigenous bison that has already disappeared.
Central Asian Leopard
The largest representative of the feline family in the territory of the Krasnodar Territory is characterized by a unique golden shade of the coat. The weight of a sexually mature male of this species reaches 68-70 kg, with a total length of at least 127-128 cm. This predatory mammal eats a variety of artiodactyl animals. Currently, the Central Asian leopard is classified as an endangered species that lives in forests and meadows, as well as near cliffs and cliffs.
The graceful and powerful feline mammal is small. The height of an adult is 50 cm, with a length of up to 115 cm. A predator easily and very deftly climbs trees in the process of hunting, where it often also equips its dwelling. The adult Caucasian lynx has brownish-red fur with bright spots. Along with other subspecies, this animal has bundles of hairs (“tassels”) on the ears. As a predator's den, hollows, small caves and crevices between tree roots are most often used.
A small predatory animal in appearance strongly resembles a marten or mink. The animal lives mainly in the western part of the Caucasus, and is also found near the Kuban and Kuma, near the sea coast. Incredibly nimble and active animal is almost constantly in the process of hunting. The diet is represented by river and sea inhabitants, so a predatory mammal is able to dive well and be in the water for a long time. The otter leads a nocturnal lifestyle and occurs mainly only at dusk. On the territory of the Krasnodar Territory today there are about 260 representatives of the species.
Small animal, resembling the appearance of an ordinary ferret. The size of this mammal is extremely limited. The fermentation bandage belongs to the category of predators and prefers living in the steppe dry zone with a minimum number of bushes and trees. Active development of agriculture has caused a sharp reduction in the total number of animals. Due to the beauty and originality of the coloring of the wool, this animal was called the "marble ferret".
The representative of the most timid artiodactyls on the territory of the Caucasus region lives in mountainous inaccessible zones. The animal is capable of speeds up to 45-50 km / h. In the Red Book of the region today there are about two thousand individuals, of which about 90% belong to the territory of the Caucasus Nature Reserve. In the wild, the average life expectancy of Caucasian chamois is limited to ten years.
Feathered in the Krasnodar Territory are diverse. Today, the northern lowland part, located on the territory of the Kuban-Priazovskaya lowland, as well as the southern mountainous and foothill zone is inhabited by three hundred species of birds.
One of the most famous representatives of the carnivorous birds of the hawk family is the largest eagle. The bird, widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, prefers mountainous areas, but can settle on flat semi-open and open landscapes. Golden eagles live mainly settled, but some birds fly to less snowy areas. The diet is represented by a variety of game, most often hares, rodents and many species of birds. A bird of prey is also capable of attacking calves, sheep, and small deer cubs.
Krachun or the snake-eagle is a bird of prey from the family of hawks and subfamilies of the snake-eater. This endangered, very rare bird species is characterized by timidity, as well as extreme distrust of people. The length of an adult bird is 67-72 cm, with a wingspan of 160-190 cm. The female is larger than the male, but has exactly the same color with it. The dorsal side of the bird is grayish-brown. A feathered predator inhabits the forest-steppe zone and mixed forests.
A widespread representative of birds from the ibis family. The adult bird is medium in size. An adult feathered bird has a body length of 48-66 cm, but most often individuals are no more than 56 cm long. The average wingspan of a loaf varies between 88-105 cm, and the total wing length is a quarter meter. The length of the beak of a representative of the ibis family reaches 9-11 cm. Adult birds are characterized by dark-brown staining of feathers with a bronze and green metallic tint. Young individuals have a brown color without low tide. In the area of the head and neck of young animals there is a whitish hatching, which disappears with age.
Bustard - a large-sized bird from the bustard family inhabits mainly steppe as well as semi-desert areas, but can be found in open spaces. Often a representative of the family settles in arable lands, pastures and other agricultural territories. Migratory or partially migratory birds feed on food not only of plant but also animal origin, including grasses, greenery of cultivated plants, insects, lizards and mouse rodents.
A wading bird from the ibis family and the spoonbill subfamily has white plumage, black legs and a beak. The average length of an adult is one meter with a weight within two kilograms. The wingspan varies from 115 to 135 cm. The mating costume of the spoonbill is distinguished by the presence of a crest and a buffy spot at the base of the neck that develops in the back of the head. Birds inhabit slow-flowing rivers and shallow reservoirs, as well as salt lakes, are combined in small flocks. Sometimes adult spoonbills adjoin other water birds, including herons and loafs.
A large Pelican waterfowl has eleven primary primary feathers. The body length of an adult male reaches 185 cm, with a wingspan of within 380 cm. The weight of an adult bird varies from 5.1 to 15.0 kg. The tail is almost straight. The plumage of pelicans is rare, with a fairly tight fit to the body. The neck is long. The beak is flattened, terminates in a hook bent down. The throat sac is quite stretchable, large. The legs are short.
A predatory representative of the falcon family was distributed on all continents, with the exception of Antarctica. A dark, slate-gray plumage stands out in the back, and colorful light feathers are located on the belly. The upper part of the head is black. The fastest bird in the world is characterized by the ability to reach a speed of 90 meters per second. In the process of hunting, peregrine falcons plan in the sky, after which they swiftly dive down. The diet of the peregrine falcon is represented by medium-sized birds, including pigeons, starlings, ducks and other aquatic or near-water species.
Caucasian black grouse
A large-sized bird from the pheasant family resembles a black grouse, but has a smaller size and a peculiar tail shape. The dimensions of the adult male are 50-55 cm, with a weight of 1.1 kg. Representatives of the species have velvety-black or dull-black plumage, eyebrows of red coloration, lyre-shaped and forked tail. At the same time, overgrowths of wild rose and rhododendron, small groves with juniper and undersized birch populate the bird mainly.
The feathered representative of the bustard family has a body length of 40-45 cm, with an average wingspan of 83 to 91 cm. The upper body is distinguished by sand plumage with a dark pattern. Winter outfit is sandy with black spots. During the flight, the wings of a bird emit a distinctive whistle, audible from afar. As a habitat, strep prefers the steppes with virgin lands.
Reptiles and Amphibians
Reptiles are an essential and peculiar component of any natural biocenoses. In the fauna of the Krasnodar Territory, such representatives of the animal world play a very important role. Today it is reliably known that there are 24 species of different reptiles in this territory, which include a pair of species of turtles, ten species of lizards, and twelve species of snakes.
A medium-sized adult marsh turtle has a carapace length of 12-35 cm, with a mass of 1.5 kg. The shell of an adult in the upper part has a dark olive, brownish-brown or dark brown, almost black color with the presence of small yellow spots, dots or strokes. The area of the head, neck, legs and tail is dark, with numerous yellow spots. It is found on lakes, swamps, in ponds and river channels overgrown with aquatic vegetation.
An animal with a convex, smooth carapace having a slight serration along the posterior margin. The head area is covered from above by rather large and symmetrical shields. The color of the upper part is yellowish-brown. The Mediterranean turtle prefers a forest lifestyle, but during the breeding season it moves to glades, edges and woodlands.
The average length of an adult reaches a quarter meter or a little more. The quick lizard has a bright lower abdomen and stripes in the back. Males, as a rule, have a darker and brighter color. During the mating period, the lizard acquires a very characteristic green color for the species.
The small size of the lizard has a light brown, brownish-gray, brown or beige body color with the presence of small black spots and dots. Along the ridge and on the sides are dark stripes that pass to the tail. One-color or completely black specimens are also found. On the lower side of the body of the males, yellow-green and light yellow colors are noted. For females, a whitish coloration of the abdomen is characteristic.
The animal is characterized by a flattened head, a long tail and legs with fingers having sharp and bent claws. The average length of an adult does not exceed 88 mm + 156 mm (tail). Color and pattern are variable. On the upper side of the body there are green and brown tones, sometimes there is the presence of olive gray, dark sand or ash gray staining. In the middle of the back there is a strip in the form of a series of spots and spots of dark color. The male abdomen is dark orange, egg-yellow or pale raspberry. Females have a lighter belly.
The average body length reaches 6.4 cm, with a tail length of 12.2 cm. The rock lizard has a slightly flattened head. The upper side of the body is characterized by a green, brownish or gray-ash color. Along the ridge zone there passes a dark and wide strip consisting of dark small spots that stand out sharply against a lighter background. The belly and throat area are distinguished by yellow, yellowish-green or whitish color.
Multi-colored foot-and-mouth disease
The appearance of the lizard is characterized by massiveness or a more slender appearance. The average body length reaches 97 mm, with a tail length within 122 mm. The caudal part at the base is wide, sharply thinning towards the end. The upper part of the foot-and-mouth disease is gray, brownish, brownish or light yellow. In the lower body there is a white, bluish-ashen or weak bluish color. The tail section is dark gray on top, and the inside is painted yellow.
The youngest individuals in the upper part have a silvery white or light cream color with a pair of thin dark lines running along the ridge. The sides and belly of the spindle differ in black-brown color. The body of maturing specimens gradually darkens, so it acquires a brown, brownish and bronze color. The average length of the lizard reaches 55-60 cm, of which more than half falls on the slightly pointed and very brittle tail.
Reptile with olive, olive-gray, olive-greenish or brownish color of the back. Dark spots or narrow dark transverse stripes stand out against the general background. A dark V-shaped spot is often present in the nape of the neck. The belly is yellowish or reddish in color, with more or less rectangular black spots. There are completely black specimens or individuals devoid of a dark pattern.
A species characterized by a very wide head with the presence of strongly protruding temporal swellings and a slightly raised tip of the muzzle. The viper has a sharp neck interception that separates the thick body from the head. The body is yellowish-orange or brick red, and in the area of the ridge there is a zigzag wide strip of dark brown or black color. The head in the upper part is black, with the presence of individual bright spots.
The average body length of the snake reaches 65-70 cm. The back has a gray, yellow-brown and brown-copper-red color. On the upper body there are 2-4 rows of transverse and elongated spots, which can merge into strips. In the area of the nape there is a pair of brown stripes or spots. The belly is grayish, bluish-steel or brown-red, with blurry dark spots or specks. From the nostrils through the eyes and the corner of the mouth to the neck area stretches a dark colored strip.
In a unique region of Russia, a particle of the wild natural range of the Western Caucasus with a temperate continental climate has been preserved. The Krasnodar Territory is favorable for the life of many aquatic inhabitants, among which there are very rare and endangered species of fish.
Predatory fish has a rather large and elongated body with a dull brown color. Against the general background, the presence of greenery in the back and sides is noted. In the abdominal part of the fish there is a grayish-yellow or whitish color. The catfish has a huge head with a rather wide mouth, which is dotted with numerous sharp teeth. In the region of the upper jaw, a pair of long whiskers is noted in the fish. There are four short whiskers on the lower jaw. The catfish is characterized by a very long ventral fin and small eyes.
A representative of schooling fish has a moderately high body. The color of silver carp in the back is dark silver. In the abdomen and on the sides there is a silver stain. The head of the fish is well developed, wide enough. The species is characterized by a rather small scale. On the ventral and anal fins there is a peculiar plaque of yellowness. The mouth is of the upper type.
A relatively large flock of fish from the cyprinid family has an elongated body of a greenish or yellowish-gray color in the back. On the sides of the grass carp there is a dark strip with gilding. In the abdomen there is a golden light color. All scales, except for abdominal ones, are characterized by the presence of dark bordering. The frontal area is wide. The ventral, anal and pectoral fins are distinguished by light staining, and the dark color is characteristic of the upper and caudal fins of this fish.
Flocking semi-migratory fish is distinguished by an elongated and straight, highly compressed laterally body, due to which the aquatic inhabitant received the popular name "saber fish". Coloring in the back in greenish-bluish tones. On the sides there is a silver color with a characteristic pink coating. The ventral, pectoral, and anal fins are yellowish in color, and the remaining fins are gray. The mouth is in a chekhon of the upper type.
Asp - a representative of typical predatory fish is characterized by a rather sweeping and slightly laterally compressed body. The color of the fish in the back is dark green. On the sides of the asp, a silver color is noted, and the abdominal part is represented by whitish tones. The ventral, pectoral, and anal fin are red, and the rest are dark in color. The mouth of a predatory fish is oblique, large and toothless, with a tubercle on the upper jaw, coinciding with a fossa in the region of the lower jaw.
Belonging to the widespread family of cyprinids, the aquatic inhabitant belongs to the Flock fish category. Yelets has a slender, sweeping type of body. In the area of the back of the fish there is a greenish-olive stain. On the sides there is a silver color with a noticeable bluish tint. The belly area is silver-white, the upper and caudal fins are gray. The remaining fins are characterized by the presence of yellowness or redness. The mouth is a half-lower type.
A representative of the cyprinid family is a typical schooling fish. The chub is characterized by an elongated, almost round body with a dark green area of the back, silvery sides, as well as a silver-white abdominal part. The edges of the scales have a very pronounced black bordering. The pectoral fins of the fish are orange, and the ventral and anal fin are distinguished by bright red coloration. The head is large, with a wide forehead and large mouth.
Flocking fish with a moderately long, sometimes tall, brownish body. There is green on the back of the carp, and a golden yellow color is noted on the sides and in the abdomen. Upper fin of elongated type, with the presence of a serrated beam. A similar ossified ray is present in the anal fin. The corners of the mouth are characterized by a pair of antennae.
Arachnids are perfectly adapted for living in the climatic conditions of the Krasnodar Territory. In the southwestern region of the Russian Federation today there are both completely safe for humans and poisonous species of spiders.
Karakurt - a poisonous spider in the Krasnodar Territory lives in arid places, equipping burrows for this purpose underground. Representatives of the species do not stand trapping nets and behave, as a rule, without undue aggression towards people. Such arachnid bites when protecting its own life. In the absence of timely medical care, a person may die from suffocation or cardiac arrest. The most active are young individuals.
South Russian Tarantula
The dangerous spider of the Krasnodar Territory is building earthen burrows. The depth of the labyrinth of the South Russian tarantula reaches 30-40 cm, and the entrance is protected by a web. Tarantulas of this species feed on various insects, as well as their larvae, which are hunted without leaving their own shelter. Today, the South Russian tarantula is the largest spider inhabiting the territory of the Krasnodar Territory. His body is covered with thick hairs of grayish, brown, white and ashy color. The bite of this spider is poisonous, but not fatal.
Also known under the name Heyrakantium, the poisonous spider exhibits predominantly nocturnal activity. It lives in arid places where it builds burrows underground. This species is distinguished by the ability to move quickly and attack the victim, which exceeds the hunter several times in size. A predatory arachnid animal has a rather bright and memorable appearance resembling a scorpion. In relation to people, the spider does not show unmotivated aggression.
Wolf spider - a relative of karakurt, is less toxic, therefore, as a result of a bite, a local allergic reaction and some deterioration in well-being appear. The spider is ash or brown. The body is covered with rather thick villi. An active hunter does not weave hunting nets, and in search of prey is able to develop new territories, including human housing.
False black widow
A common spider in the southern part ("Black Widow") of Russia is poisonous and one of the most dangerous for humans. A false black widow differs from her deadly relative by the presence of a lighter color and a very characteristic pattern in the form of a pink hourglass. In the process of searching for prey, such arachnid quite often creeps into the things of tourists, shoes of vacationers, houses and apartments.
The Red Book of the Krasnodar Territory today contains more than two hundred species of various insects that live mainly on the Black Sea coast, as well as in favorable conditions in the Sochi region.
A small insect that lives in the grassy vegetation of steppes and fields, as well as near agricultural land. Navigators actively destroy locusts, but in some cases they can harm cultivated plants.
The medium-sized butterfly is characterized by a very bright color. The wingspan of an adult varies between 30-60 mm. The wing shape of an adult lemongrass is rather unusual, with slightly elongated and pointed tips.
The color of the body of the mantis directly depends on the characteristics of the environment, but differs in camouflage character. Existing praying mantises may resemble green foliage, flowers, or wooden sticks. Some species can mimic tree bark, ashes, or lichens.
Depending on the species, the average body length of an adult grasshopper can vary between 1.5-15.0 cm. Grasshoppers have three pairs of limbs, repulsion of which with very great force allows the insect to jump a fairly large distance.