Black mamba is a poisonous snake from the mamba genus of the aspid family. This snake is one of the most poisonous on the planet.
The appearance of black mamba
On average, the length of an adult is from 2.5 to 3 m, but sometimes black mambas up to 4.5 m in length are found. Most of the individuals are grayish-brown, olive-green or dark-olive in color of the upper body and dirty white or light brown belly.Black Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis).
Dark spots may be present in the back of the body. Young individuals are painted in lighter olive and gray tones. This snake got its name for the color of the inner surface of its mouth.
The habitat of the black mamba
This snake lives on the African continent in the territory from Southwest Africa to Ethiopia and from Somalia to Senegal, with the exception of the tropical forests of the Congo Basin. Black mamba is not very adapted to life on trees.
Typically, this snake adheres to areas with shrubby or sparse woody vegetation.
For a long time, people have been using most of the territories of the natural habitat of the black mamba for agricultural purposes, so at the moment this snake is often found, for example, on reed plantations. The snake can often be seen basking at the top of the reed. It is precisely on such cultural landscapes that there are most often cases of the attack of this snake on a person.. The length of the snake can exceed 3 m.
Black Mamba Lifestyle
Mamba often settles in hollows and crowns of trees, as well as abandoned termite mounds. Such shelters serve as her home for a long period of time. Sensing danger, the black mamba tries to hide faster in its shelter.
Running away from danger, a snake is capable of developing a sufficiently high speed, up to 15 km / h.
On flat areas, the mamba can reach speeds of up to 20 km / h, which makes it the champion in speed among all types of snakes.
This snake is quite aggressive. Taken aback, she often attacks first.
The snake raises its upper body, leaning on its tail, and then makes a sharp throw towards the victim, instantly inflicting a bite on it.
Often, just before the attack, the snake performs an awesome ritual, widely revealing its black mouth.
Eating Black Mamba
The snake actively hunts birds, small rodents, squirrels. Sometimes some small reptiles become prey for black mamba. As a rule, a snake inflicts one or two bites on its victim, after which it crawls away from it and expects the effect of the poison. Sometimes, however, she does not crawl away, but keeps her prey.The black mamba is the record holder among snakes in many ways.
Black mamba breeding
The mating season begins in late spring or early summer. At this time, males arrange tournament battles for the right to own a female. Two males, exchanging head blows, weave into a tight ball and ride on the ground. They do not use their poisonous teeth during such fights. The result of such a fight is the exhaustion and escape from the battlefield of one of the duelists. The winner receives the right to mate with a female that appears on its territory.
After mating, the male creeps into its lair, and the female in the nest lays an average of 12 - 17 eggs. The incubation period lasts for 10 to 40 days. Hatched cubs have a body length of 40-60 cm. From the first hours of their appearance, they become independent and ready for further life. At this time, they are already able to hunt prey the size of a large mouse. Young growth grows very quickly and intensively, reaching a body length of 2 m already in the second year of life.A black mamba bite produces 40 times more poison than a lethal dose.
Danger to humans
The venom of this snake has a pronounced neurotoxic effect. The lethal dose of black mamba poison for humans is only 10-15 mg, despite the fact that in one bite this snake secretes about 400 mg of deadly liquid. If a snake has bitten a person on the heel or finger, then death can occur after 4 hours. If the bite was committed closer to the face or neck, then death can occur much faster, after about 20 minutes.
The poison of black mamba leads to paralysis of the muscles and at the same time to the destruction of the nervous system.
Bite victims die from suffocation, cardiac arrest and paralysis. In the event that after the bite the vaccine is not administered, the probability of death for a person is close to 100%.
In order to make an antidote, as well as other medicines, black mamba is bred in special nurseries. Keeping this snake at home is extremely dangerous.